Parasitology tests, although have a high specicifity and sensitivity, false negative or false positive results may occur. The same rules apply to viruses. Parasitology false negative results are possible in the following cases:
a) the parasite is in the prepatent period
b) the specimen is old and the organisms have deteriorated or hatched out
c) the ova or oocyst may have been damaged by the procedure
d) the parasite is suppressed in reproduction
e) ova may only be sporadically produced and the specimen was collected and tested on a less productive day
f) diarrhoea may dilute the concentration of ova
g) mucus may interfere with the flotation.
Interpretation of Results
Results will be reported in a PDF file sent to the email address that was given on the reptiland website. There wil be footnotes discussing the significance of the parasite type detected but the clinical relevance will depend on the animal tested, husbandry and results. Treatment advice, although in some cases will be advised, will be dependant on clinical signs in many cases and therefore interpretation by a veterinary surgeon is strongly recommended. For most of the parasites found in exotic animals there are no studies to show a range and therefore reporting numbers a high, moderate or low is somewhat subjective.
When interpreting results, it must be remembered that a number of factors can influence the occurrence and recognition or numbers of helminth eggs found in a faecal sample. In particular, the number of eggs is not necessarily indicative of the number of worms present. Reasons for this include:
a) Eggs are produced only by fertile adult female (or hermaphrodite) worms and will, therefore, be absent in immature or single sex infections
b) The daily output of eggs by fertile females is influenced by host-physiological factors such as stress or lactation or immunity
c) Some medications or food components i.e. tannin rich forages can also affect egg-production
d) The concentration of eggs (per gram of faeces) is influenced by the daily volume of faeces being produced by the host, the rate of passage by the ingesta through the intestine, and the distribution of eggs throughout the faecal mass
e) Some types of eggs are heavier than others and may not float well in solutions of lower specific gravity
f) Some eggs from different species are indistinguishable (particularly trichostrongylids and strongylids) or may not be identifiable (for example tapeworms or other eggs that may be passing through from prey items or animals foraging outside). Reptile lungworm eggs may be similar to some gastrointestinal eggs i.e. Strongyloides sp.
Standard screening methods are employed by the laboratory. Every reasonable effort is made by the laboratory to ensure accuracy and uniformity of screening methods. The result must be read as the content of the sample at the time it arrives in the laboratory.
Transit temperature variations and transit time can affect the viability of the sample and of some parasites. The laboratory therefore recommends regular screening to enable the results to be read as a trend.
A small sample mixed from multiple voids increases the chances of parasite detection. Intermittent shedding may occur with certain parasites so this increases the likeliness of detection and therefore reducing the possibility of false negative results. We understand that for some species or individuals it may be difficult to obtain multiple samples due to voiding frequency.
A 5ml pot is supplied in which faeces can be mixed together - Please fill the pot as much as possible. The chalky white or grey substance that is often passed with faeces are the urates, these are not required and may interfere with the testing process. Please close the faecal pot tightly and place in the plastic bag that it arrives in. The closed pot and tight bag will reduce the risk of spillage. A faecal pot that is not in the bag may not be tested and may be discarded due to health and safety reasons. If this does ocurr we will not be liable for the costs of post and packaging if another pack is sent out.
Samples should be collected as fresh and moist as possible and placed in the container supplied on the same day. Dry samples should not be sent as parasite detection would be severely affected. Storage should NOT be in the fridge as some parasitic forms and motility will be severely affected - a coll room is fine.
Veterinary responsibility and dispensing medications
We are not able to discuss treatment regimes unless we have the animals under our specific care following the RCVS guidelines. Although some footnotes shall be given, it is recommended that you contact your veterinary surgeon regarding treatment. We may offer support for your veterinary surgeon if necessary.
As veterinarians we are required only to prescribe medication to animals that are under our care, which is strictly defined as animals that we have physically examined and have come to an evidence-based diagnosis. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons has interpreted the phrase ‘under his care’ as meaning that:
a) The vet must have been given the responsibility for the health of the animal or herd by the owner or the owner’s agent.
b) That responsibility must be real and not nominal.
c) The animal or herd must have been seen immediately before prescription or,
d) Recently enough or often enough for the veterinary surgeon to have personal knowledge of the condition of the animal or current health status of the herd or flock to make a diagnosis and prescribe
e) The veterinary surgeon must maintain clinical records of that herd/flock/individual
Orders and Payments
By accessing this website and/or placing an order, you are subject to these Terms and Conditions. Use of Online Store is an acceptance in agreement of these Terms and Conditions.
We may refuse to accept an order (a) where products are out of stock or no longer available; (b) where we cannot obtain authorisation for your payment; (c) if there has been a pricing or product description error; or (d) if you do not meet any eligibility criteria set out in our terms and conditions.
Payment of the parasitology tests must be prepaid via our online shop by using the paypal option. Other payment options may be disussed. Veterinary practices also have the invoice option and these are sent out at the end of the month.
We are not VAT registered but if this were to change, all prices would be inclusive of VAT.
Although we endeavour to keep all prices and information within the Website up to date and accurate at all times, on occasion manufacturers and suppliers will make changes without prior warning, for which we reserve the right to make pricing alterations and changes to information displayed at short notice.
Where we charge separately for postage and packaging and other relevant charges, the appropriate rates are set out on this website and in addition will be clearly displayed online during searching and checkout stages. Tests ordered in the UK are inclusive of shipping and packaging rates, whereas international european orders will have an added cost of £2.
All orders that require postage are sent using first class services of Royal Mail with the recommended postal address format. We are not responsable for packages lost in the post, although in the unlikely event in which this may occur, we hope to resolve this in an amicable manner. Faecal samples sent by post should follow postage guidelines and be packaged adequately with the material supplied - includes test tubes, plastic bags for faecal pots and cotton wool within these in case of leakage. We should be made aware of any faecal sample or reptile that has previously been diagnosed with an infectious disease in order to meet health and safety standards.
Following an order a faecal pack will usually be sent out via 1st class mail the following day but please allow for this to arrive within the week. If you have not received your faecal pack please let us know via email or via the contact form and we will send out another.
To see your order status please view your account.
Parasite Test results will be sent by email within 7 working days of sample receipt - allow an extra day for crypto test results. More urgent cases received from veterinary practices may be reported sooner. Cryptosporidium results shall be sent at the end of the testing phase.
Cancellations and alterations
If you wish to cancel or alter your order you may notify us via the "contact' page at reptiland.co.uk or via email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The provisions of these clauses do not affect your statutory rights.